The online magazine on the history and operation of vintage scale model trains in American OO gauge

Sunday, October 14, 2018

A scratch built modern OO tank car

I finally got to my final tank car project from the summer, fixing a few issues with this modern tank car built mostly from brass by Bill Johann.

From the side you can tell it is not a HO conversion, this is a large model of a prototype nearly 60’ long. Where it was worse for the wear over the years was the railing around the dome. I got it nearly back to the original configuration; when it came to me it was pretty much flattened out.

The other thing I did was very lightly fill in just a few chips. I was going to try to do this on the Trout built tank cars in the recent post, but I think the cure will look worse than the problem so I will leave those alone. In this case though, eliminating a few splotches of raw brass was the right call.

From the bottom you can see Johann worked over this model several times. I think one of the most interesting details are the trucks. He modified Lionel trucks to be roller bearing trucks with rotating axle ends. Half of the caps are missing at this point. The wheels are I believe Athearn Diesel wheels set up like S-C wheels. Oh, and he also built up a new, insulated bolster from plastic and metal. It was no small task to accomplish, and the resulting trucks roll quite well for his effort.

With that I’m done with tank cars for a while except for having some lined up to decal. Good projects for the fall.

Saturday, October 6, 2018

Five more freight cars by James Trout

There are some interesting things to note with these stock cars, tank cars, and the flat car by artist James Trout. (More on his background here).

First up are these two stock cars. I take the one in the front to be one of his earliest attempts at scratchbuilding in OO, and the one in the rear a relatively late project. WCS 26003 is built up from wood and completely hand lettered, and note that the really small lettering is representational only, merely small marks. WCS 26907 on the other hand is basically a nicely built Scale-Craft kit but with upgraded ladders, a modern roof walk, and it is nicely weathered as well. But note the lettering is all done with decals.

The bottom view reveals the truck and brake details. The early model has Nason trucks with a Nason brake cylinder – but noting also the trucks have modified Lionel wheelsets with the flanges turned down. The S-C model has some upgrades, but is by no means super detailed. On all of these photos click for a closer look.

Next up we have these tank cars. The car in the front is built from a Scale-Craft kit and the UP car in the rear is Lionel. Both have interesting modifications that are not all visible in the photos. One of the most interesting is he used brass strips on the S-C car and brass wire on the Lionel car to duplicate the tie-downs that would be on the prototype holding the tank to the frame. Both cars are lettered with decals, but his hand lettering makes an appearance, fixing a decal issue on the SDRX car and painting the hazard sign on the UP car.

The bottom view also reveals the added brake details. This is a great addition to these cars as they are so visible. The Kadee couplers being added much more recently to these models likely built in the 1940s or 50s. Another thing to note, these cars are not black. Being an artist, he knew that a very deep gray looks more realistic. The cars are each slightly different in color. Finally, there is more of the small "marks" lettering on the frame of the S-C car, representing very small lettering.

Finally, we have this flat car, WCS 27425. It is longer than the comparable S-C model at 52', and is a light model, wood with added details. The lettering is a mix of decals and hand lettering, the large lettering being done by his steady hand. The only commercial parts are the Schorr trucks, couplers, and brake wheel.

Based on how the trucks are applied I’m thinking it was built originally with a different brand of truck, maybe Nason. There are no brake details but I love the look of the frame and floor from below.

All I have done to this point on these cars is gentle cleaning with Q-tips and water. I’m going to work on matching the tank car colors, and if I can come up with near perfect matches I hope to fill in the chips on those cars as well, those are nice cars that deserve to see service on the layout.

Saturday, September 29, 2018

A scratchbuilt gondola

With the end of summer I’ve needed some simpler projects, and went back to the collection of cars built by James Trout to do some gentle cleaning.

One of the first that caught my eye was this gondola. It is lettered for his West Coast Lines (West Coast Southern) and on a brief glance you would think it is a Schorr gondola. It is of a similar or the same prototype, but is actually scratchbuilt in brass with a wood floor. In the photos the car is with a Schorr gondola for comparison.

The Trout car is completely hand lettered with his steady artist hand. The new/built date is 10/38 and may or may not reflect when the model was built.

It is hard to be sure but I believe that his prototype is the car in the upper portion of page 120 of the Model Railroader Cyclopedia (I’m looking at the 1944 edition). The car depicted is a 45’ long Erie 70 ton all-steel gondola. The end details match the drawings well on the Trout car and also the side panels are the same spacing and size. The rivets were all impressed by hand into the brass sides, with the vertical pieces between the panels neatly formed and soldered into place.

In comparison, the Schorr car is 42’ long with the same types of details pressed into the ends and sides. It may just be of a different prototype, the end panels are different, but it is interesting how they are largely the same but the Schorr car is smaller in every dimension -- as if it is slightly underscale relative to the full scale size of the Trout model. The top view shows this pretty clearly. Seeing them together really makes me wonder it the Japanese makers of the Schorr car built it slightly too small.

The only commercial parts on the Trout model are visible in the bottom view, Schorr trucks (which may not be original to the car, judging on the new and too long screws) and a Nason brake cylinder. And also the plastic, Kadee style couplers of which one is broken. Subsequent to the building of the car those were added. I will be replacing those with a fresh pair of Kadee couplers to return the car to operable condition.

My cleaning was very gentle with only a Q-tip and water. I really don’t want to lose any lettering! I’m not sure what happened to the basic paint, if it is an issue with the original application, some effect from storage, or if he meant it to look weathered. In any case, now the car has a weathered look and it is an extremely interesting car to see in comparison to the Schorr import.

Sunday, September 9, 2018

An HO Arch Bar Truck Conversion

One thing you need on train cars are trucks. Bill Gilbert has been focusing on building a fleet of 19th century cars lately, and with a truck shortage came up with an interesting conversion.

What he noted was, to quote him, “the Mantua HO arch bar trucks with the steam engine have a sheet metal bolster that can be flattened out with pliers.” You would do this just enough to put widened out HO 36” wheelsets in the frames. “They are short (4’-6”) vs (5’-0”) but look good under the short tender.”

As he noted, the wheelbase is short on these Mantua/Tyco trucks but it is a decent stand in, and I think better than another possible substitute, On3 trucks. I tried to arrange the trucks in the photo to show the bolsters and side frames. These are not yet modified for OO and I’ll be sending them to Bill.

The best though I still think are Sn3 conversion trucks, the PBL trucks being a little pricy but they roll and look good, worth the effort. More on those here.


Monday, July 30, 2018

Two modern tank cars

Recently restored were these tank cars, both kitbashed in August, 1993 by Bill Johann.

I have actually a group of 8 different tank cars from Johann, kitbashed and scrathbuilt, obtained either from eBay or the OO Inventory. These two cars are both part of pairs of HO cars modified for OO. These models are described briefly in the November, 1994 issue of The OO Road. 

The basic idea is a really large HO tank car will look like a somewhat smaller OO car. The models themselves are Walthers cars, Johann in the article scales the longer one at 57’ in OO and the shorter one at 47’ in OO. Of the two pair I think the bigger pair looks somewhat better on the layout, bigger is better in this case.

All four cars needed a lot of repair -- these are rather fragile models -- and there are still a few missing parts such as the end ladder on the car on the left. Still, fixing these four cars was a great end of summer project and they run great on the layout with my modern (70s-80s) era models.

As to the other cars hinted at earlier, the scratchbuilt car needs some soldering and will be fixed soon – it is metal and quite nice. The other three are kitbashed TankTrain cars. Of those, one is missing a lot of parts and will require a lot of work to get it going; those will also be the subject of some future article when they are together.

Saturday, July 21, 2018

American OO in the 1960s, part III: The last advertisement and more

In part II (here) we learned that Alfred “Bud” Spice Jr. purchased the residual of the Guild of the Iron Horse in February of 1968.

Highly notable in relation to that, he ran in June of 1968 what I would peg as the last “true” OO manufacturer advertisement in RMC, for his Ultimate Screw Machine Company, OO Division. I have more about that ad here, and he ran exactly what it sounds like he ran, a screw machine company, but did some OO gauge production as a sideline.

New Jersey was the final hotbed of interest in American OO and Bud Spice was there to serve their needs. In this late 1960s time frame he used post cards to communicate what was for sale and what was coming, the second scan being an example from the three I have. They are all 5 cent postcards which curiously lack postmarks but were mailed to an OO gauger in Maryland and would date to 1968-71. I love this wording: “Coming soon from America’s headquarters for OO scale, F-3 A & B units for those who like Diesel power.”

Another small sheet that came to me with the postcards reports,

At long last! F-3 Diesel Castings in OO Scale. Good detail French Sand Castings in Brass. The castings will clean up rapidly with a file. Same units as Fred Schorr formerly produced. Complete set of castings consisting of two roof sections, one A unit body, one B unit body, two tank sections and eight side frames. $60.00 per set plus postage. Single unit set $35.00 plus postage. 

On the same printed sheet he also lists a group, “while they last,” of Scale-Craft kits, Schorr trucks, etc. I also have letters from him dating to 1980 that outline his OO production. In summary he had

Residue of Guild of the Iron Horse
Patterns & Materials from Myron P. Davis
Fred Schorr diesel patterns
Pennsy P5A and New Haven BB electric patterns
Quite a variety of old stock Scale-Craft and etc., and of course his
Ultimate OO wheelsets, produced in his screw machine factory (more info here! The best wheelsets ever!).

As to the "more" mentioned in the title of this article, there was more going on, people doing their thing, it just does not show up in the hobby press particularly. But there are examples here and there. One notable person of the era was Commander Moale, who has been covered in this site previously (see this article). I don’t have a copy of it, but there was (according to the Jan., 1986 issue of The OO Road) some coverage of his trolley models in the September, 1969 issue of Traction & Models.

With that we close this brief look at the 1960s. Soon I hope to keep going forward into the 1970s.

Return to Part I of 1960s series

Friday, July 13, 2018

Castings! Postscript, kits produced

As a postscript to the Castings series (which starts here), beyond the cars I have assembled already, a group of kits were put together from the runs of parts.

All told 17 kits were bagged up in three versions, the reproduction Nason boxcar and the Graceline quad hopper with either an open body or an original wood block body. The bagged kits include the parts for complete bodies, with soft metal castings for some smaller parts in addition to the resin castings which are the main body parts.

I suspect there really is no great demand out there, but in any case if you are interested in a kit or two, contact me privately.

The second photo shows the entire production run in one box. At this point I have used up all of my mold release and casting resin, and I’m done with making resin castings for a while.

This was in any case a very interesting project. I was able to explore new skills, make some interesting parts, and also, I’m able to scratch off my bucket list the topic of “OO gauge manufacturer!” The last car of the project I plan to build is one more Nason boxcar, the project that kicked this off really, as I had a complete model and a partial model for this car. The final car will be the one that is a combination of original and reproduction parts.

Thursday, June 28, 2018

American OO in the 1960s, part II: Brass

The most notable OO brass importer of the 1960s was of course Fred. E. Schorr Jr. In my files are a pair of mimeographed price sheets from the later 1960s which offer some business insights.

The first one is dated June 20, 1966 with an address on Lee Park Avenue in Wilkes Barre, PA. The text makes clear that one purpose is to take pre-orders with “deposits not less than 10% of total order.” “The following items will be available from Japan in approximately 90 days,” specifically,

The prospects of more Bettendorf trucks in “OO” depend on confirmed responses to this announcement. I must order a minimum of 500 pairs and while the price is higher I feel I can reasonably offer them at $1.50 per pair. Your response to this will determine if I should at this time order a minimum or 500 pairs.

Following that is a list of what he actually has in stock, with prices. He has 7 of the RDC2 models at $18.95 each, 3 of the RDC3 models at $21.95 each, 24 pair of arch bar trucks, 12 of the twin pocket hoppers, two gondolas, and one final 4-6-0, “the very last,” at $49.95.

The second mimeographed price sheet is not dated but dates to after 1968. The street address is now in Millersburg, PA. Mostly it is used OO, he seems to be disbursing items from an outside 3rd rail layout, but he has 24 pair of Schorr Bettendorf trucks and 6 pair of arch bar trucks at $2.50 each. So, prices have gone up a bit, perhaps he could not order that larger batch of 500 in 1966 and had to pay a higher price per unit? The kicker though is that the final item on the list is “Penn Central decals as used on PC diesels.” Penn Central did not start up until 1968, so this list could actually be from the early 1970s. Perhaps he had a buddy who worked up some OO decals for the PC? It would have been clear to him and whoever received it at the time. Schorr passed away in 1976.

The other brass maker of the 1960s is one with only a little info out there, Guild of the Iron Horse. One thing is clear, they never advertised, it was all by correspondence. Appears to really have been conceptualized as a guild with members working together toward producing OO models. If this was a viable model, it seems not. I’ve written on this firm before (here, and be sure to scroll down to the updates); the main things to note are the owner started off trying to make a better version of the Nason 4-4-2, then seems to have had a maker in probably Japan produce an even better 4-4-2 and more. This comment below, received in February, 2018 to another article from ruxtonite, sums it up well:

The mystery maker is Jerome Bailey Foster. He was an Architect. He was the owner of "The Guild of the Iron Horse" which was located in Winchester, Massachusetts. The company was inherited by his daughter who then transferred the ownership to Mr. Alfred Spice Jr. In February 1968 on the 27th day.

Which leads us to the final part of this series on OO in the 1960s, where we look more at Alfred “Bud” Spice.  More soon.

Continue reading 1960s series

Tuesday, June 19, 2018

An amazing ATSF 2-8-2 by James Trout, and the art of scratch building steam

The name of James Trout has come up a few times in this site now, but for quick reference he was a longtime Disney illustrator and an American OO enthusiast (longer overview here).

Among his interests were the ATSF, and he built this fine model of ATSF 2-8-2 4027. Internet resources I’m finding would indicate the prototype is a Baldwin product from 1923.

This model is simply outstanding and a prime example of scratch building from a time before the Internet and other distractions. All in all, the craftsmanship is just so high, it is intimidating if I am honest. I could never duplicate this model. Click on any of the photos for a bigger view.

When 4027 got to me it would not run, as the motor was damaged. I was able to fix that by switching out some parts; and the model bench tests fine now! Unfortunately, there is a short on the insulated side of one of the drivers, so it won’t run down the track. It might be due to some subtly bent part that I’m not seeing, but, even then, the model is too large to run on my curves, so I think it is best to leave it as it is, a beautiful display model.

I still had it in a box to work on among my projects, as a cab seat fell out after working on the drive. With the model apart, it was a good time to also take some photos for this article. The boiler is held on with just two small screws.

Starting with the boiler, wow. Maybe some commercial fittings here and there, but this is quite an impressive, one of a kind model in 4mm scale. Lots of Santa Fe specific details, so many neatly fabricated and soldered parts and wires, and of course the hand lettered numbers. It is a little dusty from prior display, but I’m thinking it would not be a good idea to clean it aggressively.

Surprisingly, the back head of the boiler, in the cab, is not detailed at all, but note the side curtains made from tissue paper. And the window glass is, of course, real glass.

The frame holds a secret that is not easy to see in the photos; this model is actually built on a Nason 2-8-0 frame and possibly drivers, with the lead truck being modified Nason. Look at all those added details! The front coupler it should be noted is a working coupler, built to scale. The side rods and such are certainly not Nason, he fabricated parts that are accurate to scale.

To the tender, that is all scratch built, other than the Kadee coupler on the rear. That I believe was added much later, the model itself I would guess to date from maybe 1950. There is an old repair to the back of the tender that is not nearly as finely done as the model itself, perhaps done at the same time as the Kadee installation.

Speaking of scratch building, this is also not very visible in the photos but what are those trucks on the tender? They are not commercial and are actually built up from many parts. The journal boxes are sprung with small springs, etc.; the work that must have been required merely to fabricate those trucks from scratch is mind boggling. Today one would think about 3D printing unusual parts such as these.

This is absolutely the most exquisite model I own. Growing up on the ATSF it is a huge treat to own this engine.

In addition to this one locomotive, I own a variety of passenger and freight cars from his workshop. I am so glad to be able to own a group of the Trout models, some of which have been featured in this site previously. With others of his needing similar small repairs, and an ongoing reorganization of my storage system, be watching for more of his models to be featured here.

A final note would be there are other Trout locomotives out there. I have photos of some of them, models for his West Coast Lines and for sure one more big ATSF engine, 4-8-4 3763. May they all be long enjoyed by others.

Thursday, June 7, 2018

American OO in the 1960s, part I: Too invested to quit

After a hiatus of a few years it is finally time to continue the OO history series. By the 1960s products had commercially slowed down to a trickle in American OO, but there was a core group of individuals very dedicated to the scale and gauge active over this entire decade. This series, as it continues, will begin to be their story.

Kicking off things off, 1961 was a year that saw the Greenbrook of David Sacks on the move! Two articles in particular have been previously posted here that relate to the Greenbrook, with the layout being featured in the August, 1961 issue of Model Railroader:


Moving on in 1961, a second run of Schorr 4-6-0 models were reaching the USA from Japan. Schorr by this point relied on essentially direct mail correspondence to market his models, and this photo has a hand-written note from Schorr on the back. Delivery was slated for December, 1961, price $39.95, “reserve yours now!” The original run of this model was listed as being available in 1956, and the 1957 price/sales sheet says “only a few of these left.”

There was more quietly going on, a good example being found in the March, 1964 issue of Model Railroader. There we find an article on signals, but the layout featured is actually an OO layout with nice photos. The author, C. Kenneth Hurd, a dentist by profession, had published several prior articles on signals and other electrical concerns. There is an earlier photo of his layout in an article on automatic interlocking in the June, 1946 issue of MR, and intriguing photos of a trolley layout in an article on train control in the Feb. 47 MR, but it unfortunately does not state that those models are OO. This present article, “How I built my layout – with signals” provides an “easy-to-understand contact arrangement” that “controls signals and stops trains automatically.”

There is a scale drawing of his large, 8 x 20-foot layout and several photos, this being the best of the group, showing how the passenger train has “passed far enough beyond the signal bridge to change the signal at right from green (upper lamp) to red.” That the signal system is applied to an OO scale layout he only notes well into the article, where he states, ”I’m afraid the gauge I use dates me, for old-timers will spot Nason, Lionel, Scale-Craft, and other makes of OO scale equipment in the photos.” He also in the next paragraph talks about his track; a large layout with signals needs good track!
I discovered that the die-cut paper tie strip I used would not hold the gauge; the ties would warp and pull the rails together. I changed to the Midlin type with one rail fixed in wooden ties and a slit for the other rail. [Midlin track has not been made for some time, and few, if any, shops still have it. – Ed.]
The editor’s note is significant too (and I have more on Midlin here). Taken together, American OO was not a major player by 1964, but people like Kenneth Hurd were invested enough in the scale to keep on going with projects that interested them, such as developing a working signal system.

Worth mentioning as well, from the same issue of Model Railroader, Eastern was still in business and had just moved their operations from New Jersey to Montana. They would run a monthly ad in MR. for many years; you could still buy their OO kits from them into the 1980s.

Before closing, an aside on this series as it continues into the 1960s and beyond. With years of effort and some much appreciated help I own physical copies of all but about a dozen magazines before 1960, and I have in fact skimmed/read and taken OO related notes on nearly every issue of every model railroad magazine before 1960. But as this series goes forward I have not read every magazine (owning a lot, but not all), and I turn to other notes I’ve developed. I don’t recall who pointed me at this 1964 article, but in short I am in appreciation to many people over years of looking at the history of American OO.

As the series continues we look to the late 1960s.

Continue in 1960s OO history series

Tuesday, June 5, 2018

A Mantua 4-4-0 converted to OO

It is fairly well known in the American OO community that the Mantua/Tyco 4-6-0 is actually a 1/76 scale model, but gauged to run on HO track. The tender and boiler are correct for OO, and even the cylinder block is wide enough to work with no modification. The model is based on Sierra Railroad No. 3. More on this model here, along with a view of the below model "before."

I was never wild about how that model turned out. It ran OK but the drivers just seem so small. Then recently I had an idea. I have some spare drivers which I think were made for Bill Johann as part of his 2-8-2 project by Mantua. They are too big to fit on the model as a 4-6-0, but if you leave the front driver off entirely you get this I think rather successful model.

The cab, as noted in the prior article, is a Scale-Craft 4-6-0 cab instead of the stock cab. I wanted to give the model the look of an old engine still in use in the 1930s or 40s even. For an older time look, you can of course use the original cab.

Being really very pleased how this came out (I like the spacing and size of the drivers a lot) I am doing a second conversion, and this view shows the frame. I have another shortline 4-4-0 in mind, along the lines of engines seen in the classic book Mixed Train Daily, a favorite of mine when I was first getting into the hobby.

The only touchy part of the job is that you have to pull apart a driver and mount the original gear on it using a NWSL quartering jig. It ended up not being as difficult to do as I thought it might, which was encouraging as I have a number of steam projects backed up on the workbench.

I should note that Mantua/Tyco sold this same basic model also as a 2-6-0 and a 4-8-0. I had always liked the look of the 2-6-0 and purchased one of them as well. Alas, the setup of the drive rods is different and it would be a lot more trouble to get that all set up correctly with OO drivers. But the good news there is I can see a way to use that frame and the vintage Mantua/Johann drivers on another project engine, a 2-6-2. If I can get that one running by the end of the summer I will feel that I got something big done.

Saturday, May 5, 2018

An ATSF 4-6-0 in OO

Fresh off the workbench is this nice, vintage styled American OO model of an ATSF 4-6-0.

First the wider shot, at the station. The numbering is correct for an ATSF 4-6-0, but none of theirs were quite as modern as the Scale-Craft model. This particular model has the early, 24 volt DC motor which I find runs great. It was an eBay purchase, without a tender.

The tips of note to share all relate to the tender. I built up the tender from fresh parts, making use of a fresh set of Nason Andrews trucks which had bronze sideframes and also a square brass bolster, something only rarely seen and maybe not an original Nason part. This improves the electrical pickup and operation in general. Also note that after lettering the model I masked off the coal bunker before spraying with Dullcote, so that the "coal" would remain glossy relative to the dull finish of the model, an effect more visible in person. The decals are vintage Champion HO.

The boxcars are both Eastern and the passenger car is a vintage Scale-Craft kitbash described here. I ended up having to tweak the trucks on the cars and also my track. Due to a combination of factors, clearly you need better track to run passenger trains than freight. One key thing is these cars presently have S-C dummy couplers, which I had to adjust as they would catch and cause the cars to derail.

The engine will pull three S-C cast passenger cars in a nicely controlled range of speed. I'm happy with how it came out, on to the next project!

Thursday, May 3, 2018

Castings! Part VII, the Graceline Hopper Car

The final model of this project has been completed in two versions, standard and open versions of the Graceline quad hopper.

In Part V of the series (here), the cars are seen before painting and lacking some details. Digging around, I realized I had a nearly complete original Graceline hopper with the card sides, so I completed it with the two I made. 6031, in the back, is the original model, 6035 is mine built with an original wood block body, and 6037 is all my parts, built up as open.

After some struggle for a paint scheme I lettered these in a simple scheme for my Orient, with the idea that they are old cars being used as ballast hoppers. The loads are simply sheets of sandpaper cut to size and fit down in the car, a trick I saw on some hoppers that had been on the layout of Fred Schorr. The open car is nearly empty as modeled, and the other two as full as they would ever be, with ballast being heavier than coal. Note I added decals that indicate how full they can be at maximum.

The most notable car of the group is the open one. The original Graceline model was not an open car, it was always to be built loaded, using a wood block sub-body as the sides were cardboard and needed the support. The open car is striking to see. It was a bit of a challenge to glue together solidly due to likely some residue of mold release. I did my best to scrub it off but perhaps should have invested in a specialty product to remove it. If I build more of these I likely will investigate that further.

The trucks are all mixtures of original Graceline parts and reproduction parts. They took a lot of effort (described more here), and are somewhat overscale (wheelbase too long), but operate great.

As to a final comparison, I have to admit the original car looks a bit better than my reproductions, the rivets are sharper, but I think all are good enough to be suited to the layout in a work train context which was my goal.

I started this particular project as I had the side mold that Temple Nieter had made, and also had six of the wood block bodies. I will make enough parts to make all the wood block bodies up into complete kits, and will also make a few more sets of the open cars while I’m at it. As I don’t model a coal road, I don’t much need more than three, but if anyone out there wants a kit or three do feel free to ask.

Return to Part I of Series

UPDATE: Continue to postscript 

Saturday, April 14, 2018

Castings! Part VI, the Nason Cast Boxcar

Since last summer I have been working on a project to reproduce a couple of uncommon, classic American OO models in resin castings. In the previous installment of the series (here), both of the cars are seen before painting and lacking some decals. The first models completed with decals are two Nason cast boxcars.

In this first photo the comparison is between an original Nason sand cast aluminum boxcar and my reproduction. Visually there is hardly any difference, with probably a slight edge for the reproduction car (in the rear), as the sides are a bit smoother. They are assembled in the same manner, with screws and pins. Also, you would say there is hardly any difference if you were holding both in your hands, as I weighted the resin cast copy to the exact same weight as the original, they feel the same. Both are riding on Nason trucks and have Kadee couplers; they look great as a pair on the layout.

I should note the decals, I used parts of two Microscale HO sets, the PENNSYLVANIA is from a 50’ boxcar set and makes the decal job work visually. The ladders are Eastern parts.

In the second photo we get to the comparison of the Nason model to a Lionel model, decorated similarly. Of the two, the Lionel model is the better one in a variety of ways, better details, etc. I think the doors on the Nason model are more effective looking, the Lionel doors are relatively toy like, but on the other hand I wish I had a roof walk for the Nason car that did not have holes drilled in it. (The only original I could find had the countersunk holes. Of course, I could replace them with wood parts, and I might opt for that on subsequent cars.)

What got me started on this part of the casting project was I had parts for 1.5 aluminum Nason boxcars. I wanted to build them up, and I should this summer finish up the half car with reproduction parts -- and will have a few extra sets of parts when this is all done if someone else out there is crazy enough to build a few up.

For me in general there is a division between cars intended for the layout and cars that are part of the collection. These are honestly on the borderline between the two groups of models. I like how they look and operate, they give a little more variety to the layout, but they do have a bit of a rougher look in the end.

Coming soon – quad hoppers, the conclusion of this series!

Continue reading in series

Wednesday, April 4, 2018

Cleaning up Sand-Cast Parts

One material used for many pre-war American OO models, especially locomotives, is sand-cast bronze.

As implied by the terms used, the mold used to make the part is actually packed sand, which leaves a characteristic rough finish on the finished parts. The process is described further in this article.

In addition, bronze is not at all a soft material. The only way to clean the surface up is by sanding it. To achieve a very fine finish you will have to sand the model with multiple grades of wet or dry sandpaper, working your way down from rough to fine grades. However, the tip of this post is for your initial sanding do as much of it as you can with your part safely in a bench vice and strips of belt sander sandpaper.

I picked up this tip from a natural horn maker. What is great about the belt sander strip is it is very strong and you can sand the part relatively quickly and vigorously using both hands. For curved surfaces such as the end of the Scale-Craft 4-6-2 tender seen in the photo the sander strip is ideal. Also, you can tear it into thin but strong strips for hard to reach places.

Some areas of course you cannot reach in this manner, which means you will have to use files, small sanding blocks, etc. A perfect finish can be obtained, but it will be slow going.

When I see sand cast parts that come to me all cleaned up (especially with tapped holes!), I know and respect the effort it took back on some cold winter’s night before the internet.

Saturday, March 31, 2018

Passenger Cars from the West Coast Lines by James Trout

A group of cars I look at periodically are ones received a couple years ago that were built by James Trout. Trout was not only an American OO scale enthusiast but also a Disney illustrator and art school grad (more details in this article). He knew how to build.

In working on organization these few weeks I had these out again and felt it time to do some work on them, fixing some minor problems. There are a total of nine passenger cars decorated for his road, the West Coast Southern. This is the road name seen on his freight cars, but he opted for the West Coast Lines name on the cars below, I think imitating Southern Pacific Lines passenger cars in this regard. I have had the first six of the cars below running on the layout, they make for a nice pair of short mail trains or a longer mail train. Basically he had at least the cars to make a real nice mail train and also something a bit higher level if you add some Pullmans.

At the head of any mail train would be a working RPO, of which two made it to me. Graceline and Nason both produced RPOs, but these are not those, these two cars are scratchbuilt. They have a lot of nice details, the commercial ones on both cars mainly from Nason. Both cars are on Nason trucks. I believe Trout formed the roof of both cars himself from wood, and the longer car, 998, has a real nice effect of a tarpaper roof. The sides of both cars are made from a cardboard material, with the shorter car, 987, showing a little damage (and it is likely an earlier effort on his part). The only rivet details visible are on the ends of the longer car, which are J-C. Lettering as on all these cars is a mixture of decals and hand lettering, with West Coast Lines lettered by hand.

Next up are baggage cars, both of which ride on Nason trucks. 842 is built up from a J-C kit, and on a level that a mere mortal could duplicate. The brake cylinder is Nason and there is another casting that is probably a HO part. Otherwise, the car is pretty much as supplied by J-C except for the roof. This again is an arch roof with the tarpaper effect. What he did was I think use a bandage material and add strips of it. I think in this case done after the initial construction of the car. The new roof totally changes the visual impact of the car. 833 on the other hand is completely scratchbuilt and note those doors that open! Beyond the sides, however, construction details are otherwise generally similar between the two cars. Notable also, these cars have Kadee couplers. It looks like he went back and added these in perhaps the 1970s or 80s to some of these cars.

Passengers need to ride too, and for those we have these two venerable kits. The Scale-Craft coach 4410 is pretty much stock really, but with a few added details and a full interior. This car, actually, it would not be too hard to duplicate the level of the added details, so it is an encouraging model to see, and it would also be the easiest to lightly restore to get it closer to the original look.. The J-C combine 2760 would be a little harder to duplicate, but shows essentially the same added details, with some side damage due to age.

Not pictured, there is also another coach, built from a J-C kit. It is not in good shape, the sides have warped significantly. Which is a shame, as it also has a full interior, etc. I will have to think long and hard on this model, one option being rebuilding with new sides, to bring it up to past glory, but for now I will just keep pondering it.

Two final cars, not as suited to my layout due to length, are these two. 1359 is a parlor lounge car and 1251 is a diner. These I think you would have to call scratchbuilt, they have wood sides and full interiors, with a similar overall detail level to the other cars with some commercial parts visible. The trucks are “opened up” S-C 6 wheel trucks, with the excess material removed for better detail. The sides are a little loose from the bodies but in no danger of falling off.

And then I will need at some point do an article on the four heavyweight Pullmans that match the above cars. Suffice to say three of the four are scratchbuilt in a manner similar to the ones above (and to different prototypes), and they all have full interior details.

The modeling skills of James Trout were really high, at least in part it is a result of his working and living in an age before the Internet when analog skills were more valued. In any case, my plan this summer is to go back and rework the details on several of my best passenger cars to approach the level he obtained, and also be watching for an article or articles on his outstanding streamlined passenger cars.

Saturday, March 24, 2018

Four Cars from the Saddleback Mountain

A number of modelers in American OO had their own freelanced railroad names. Ed Morlok put together a rather extensive list of these roads in two parts, the main article being found in The OO Road for March, 2007, and the follow up part 2 in the September, 2007 issue. But then cars turn up from other roads such as these below, and the name of the builder may be lost to history.

Going in order by car number, first up is this nice caboose, Saddleback Mountain number 127. This is as nicely built a Scale-Craft caboose as you are likely to find. The builder added hand rails and brake details, installed Kadee couplers, and look at the paint and lettering. The car is neatly airbrushed and the lettering is done with something not seen a lot today, dry transfers. The mountain logo is hand painted; every logo seen on these cars is just a little different. This and two more of the cars were recent eBay finds.

Next up we have Saddleback Mountain 230, a Scale-Craft boxcar lettered for express merchandise service. This was the original one that I had and it was in rough shape, coming to me with some cars by David Sacks. I thought it might be a line of his but looking now, it is clearly a different builder. I did some initial restoration on this car and Jack Bartman did some more, and a sincere thanks to him to get this back again. I’m wondering if it should have silver trucks like the caboose, and I may change them out. The lettering is a mixture of decals for the data (weight, etc.), dry transfer lettering, and the hand drawn logo.

The third model is a really interesting one, this 65’ mill gondola with a pipe load. Saddleback Mountain 458 was built from an Eric Stevens article that was part of the “dollar model” series published in Model Railroader, subsequently reprinted in their book Easy-to-build Model Railroad Cars. Looking at the car, the builder followed the article closely and used wood mainly with a Strathmore overlay on the sides. It is very neatly built with a nice load, and it is a shame that it has some damage that will be quite difficult to repair. The lettering is worth special note. Besides the dry transfers and the decal data, over on the far right the data you see there is actually hand lettered nicely. Not visible is the brake wheel, it is gone, but the chain for the brakes remains. 

Finally we have a late Scale-Craft reefer, SMRD 605. Like the caboose, this is as nice an example as you are likely to see of this model. It was painted very neatly with an airbrush, and the lettering is mostly decals except for the dry transfer Saddleback Mountain and the hand drawn logo. That same hand that did the logo also did a nice job with the door highlights, and as with the mill gondola this car is on Schoor trucks.

If anyone can point me to who the builder was, do let me know! I will be having more articles on models from vintage OO layouts in the coming months.

Thursday, March 22, 2018

Scale-Craft Zinc Casting Breakdown?

Some of the casting materials used in OO models (particularly Famoco and Graceline) have a strong tendency to break down over years, depending on the batch of metal used to make them. A few years ago I posted an article on this “rot,” which is really more formally known as zinc pest. 

I have rarely noted any symptoms of this with Scale-Craft castings. My thinking is they used a better die casting material. I did, not too long ago, run into several hopper cars with some issues on the bodies – blistering -- which I was able to clean up and paint over after a brief soaking in vinegar. The flaws are not too visible.

But then, these castings just came in. WOW! The zinc has broken down badly in several of these truck sideframes, and also the body of an S-C baggage car (seen at the bottom of the photo) is in rough shape.

The question is, what causes this? Turning back to the Wikipedia article also linked from my earlier article, zinc pest

…was first discovered to be a problem in 1923, and primarily affects die-cast zinc articles that were manufactured during the 1930s, 1940s, and 1950s. The New Jersey Zinc Company developed zamak alloys in 1929 using 99.99% pure zinc metal to avoid the problem, and articles made after 1960 are usually considered free of the risk of zinc pest since the use of purer materials and more controlled manufacturing conditions make zinc pest degradation unlikely.
Affected objects may show surface irregularities such as small cracks and fractures, blisters or pitting. Over time, the material slowly expands, cracking, buckling and warping in an irreversible process that makes the object exceedingly brittle and prone to fracture, and can eventually shatter the object, destroying it altogether. Due to the expansion process, attached normal material may also be damaged. The occurrence and severity of zinc pest in articles made of susceptible zinc alloys depends both on the concentration of lead impurities in the metal and on the storage conditions of the article in the ensuing decades.

They don’t expand on that point about storage conditions, but I suspect that is part of the issue of these specific castings. Maybe S-C used a bad batch of zinc, but in my real-life professional world of the French horn, another thing is known to attack finishes of instruments; breakdown of the materials inside the case (foam, etc.), creating an aggressive chemical environment if the fumes are not vented out (the problem being seen when a case is closed for months at a time).

As to these trucks, there was likely some trigger based on storage conditions, a condition that perhaps also led to rust on the steel parts. Fortunately, some of the truck castings will clean up OK and the wheels are all good and will be put to use. And the aluminum frames of the S-C cars are both perfect, unaffected as they contain no zinc.

I should note that the Wikipedia article adds that “Zinc pest is different from a superficial white oxidation process ("Weissrost") that may affect some zinc articles.” Some of what you see in old castings is this oxidation process (it looks somewhat like mold on the surface of the model). Truth be known, on these parts in the photo we may be seeing both processes.

As to prevention today, so long as you keep your models in a situation where they can breathe a bit (not in a tightly sealed container) there should be no problems. As I said in my original article, if a casting is going to go bad it probably already has by now.

UPDATE: On taking apart the S-C steel side cars I found this surprise. Look at the roof at the bottom of the photo in particular, it is shrunken in the middle and damaged. Both roofs are damaged. Based on the loose materials inside my working theory is that the windows were a nitrate film stock that broke down. Lucky that it did not start a house fire! Maybe the storage location was also very humid. The fumes from this chemical breakdown probably also influenced the development of the bad zinc pest. I am able to save all the brass parts at the least.

UPDATE II: I did work over the four least damaged 6-wheel truck sideframes seen in the cars in this article, and have them solid. Method involves soaking in vinegar for short periods of time and then scraping off the material impacted by the zinc pest, which is softened by the vinegar. They are now assembled into nice working trucks (using the 3D printed bolsters), will look fine when painted black.

Sunday, March 18, 2018

A Brief Look at Scale-Craft 4-6-0 Weights

One topic that has been in the back of my mind is weights and S-C 4-6-0 derived models. On the vast majority of this fairly common OO model you will see the weight is cut to fit. The issue is that the Universal motor and drive has a different shape than the original.

This photo is of an original. Note how there is a tab or extension off the main weight that fits right over the big DC motor. Also note, there is a second weight under the motor as well. It has a triangular profile (from the side) and fills the space under the motor, a space that does not exist when the later, Universal motor is used. It is shaped to fit around and behind the last driver. In the photo the second weight is painted black and is more visible if you click on the photo for a closer look.

The result of the combination of weights is that the earlier model is in fact heavier than the later one by a degree. Not so much that you can really notice, but very recently I was able to sort it out so that all three of my models with the early motor/drive have unmodified weights and a weight under the motor. To do the latter I had to make a mold, this is a simple part to cast.

The model seen here is not quite done but the other two are. If  you have never tried running one of these early motors, I find they run very well with the large scale setting on my power pack, which puts out more like 18 volts (the early SC motor is 24V DC). Glad to have all three of mine with the full number of weights.